Executive functions (EF) are the cognitive tools the brain uses to control, organize, and regulate our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Effective cognitive processing and mood regulation are active when our executive functioning is operating at its highest capacity. When executive functions are not working properly, or there is a dysfunction, our ability to reason, problem- solve, and switch from task to task (cognitive flexibility) becomes impaired. These functions also play a role in our ability to plan, prioritize, and manage time.
Executive Dysfunction is often present in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is among the most common disorders diagnosed in children today. The main symptoms are inattention, hyperactivity (restlessness) and impulsivity. Cognitive behavioral therapy has benefits for individuals who suffer from ADHD or have EF deficits in terms of improving self-regulatory skills.